By R. Belmans
Every electromagnetic phenomenon can be attributed to the seven basic equations, the four Maxwell equations of the electrodynamic and those equations of the materials. The latter can be
• isotropic or anisotropic
• linear or nonlinear
• homogenous or nonhomogenous.
The Maxwell equations are linked by interface conditions. Together with the material equations they form the complete set of equations describing the fields completely.
In this section the Maxwell equations, necessary for the calculation of electromagnetic fields, are discussed in their differential form. The seven equations describe the behaviour of the electromagnetic field in every point of a field domain. All electric and magnetic field vectors E, D, B, H, and J and the space charge density p are in general functions of time and space. The conducting current density can be distinguished by a material/field dependent part Jc and by an impressed and given value J0 . It is assumed that the physical properties of the material permitivity e, permeability fx and conductivity a are independent of the time. Furthermore it is assumed that those quantities are piecewise homogenous.
Three groups of equations can be distinguished:
group 1:
group 2:
group 3 for isotropic material:
In the literature published in different languages different operators are used. Here for the identity of the operators
is chosen. Ifare constant in a domain their position in the equations can be exchanged for the geometrical vector operators If they are constant in time, their position can be exchanged for the time derivatives
The three groups of equations are called the main equations, the laws of conservation and the material equations. The first equation (i), eq.(3.8) is known as the law of FaradayLenz with E the electric field strength and B the flux density. Eq. (ii), (3.9) is known as Ampere’s law with magnetic field strength H, conducting current density J and D the electric flux density. The termthe displacement current density,is neglected from now on, as already argued. Equations (iii), (3.10) and (iv), (3.11) describe the constitutive properties of the magnetic flux density and the displacement current with the space charge density p. All six field quantities E, D, H, B, J and p are dependent on each other.
Motion
Electric and magnetic fields form a unit with phenomena depending on the point of view of the observer. An observer at rest looking at a moving charge perceives an electric field caused by the charge and an additional magnetic field. The observer moving with the same speed as the charge does notices only the electric field. The field quantities can be represented in different coordinate systems by different electric and magnetic field quantities. The Lorentztransformation can be used to link both resting and moving systems. The field strength in a resting system x,y,z and of a uniformly in xdirection moving systemcan be given by:
A distinction is made between the parallel and perpendicular direction of motion. The vectors for the field quantities are calculated by:
Using the Lorentz transformation for the charge density p’ and the vector of the conducting current density J’ for example for a particle beam moving in the xdirection with
it can be written
In a similarthe scalar potentialand vector potentialof a moving charge in the xdirection is transformed by:
In practically all electrical engineering problems of technical importance, observed phenomena concerning motion are slow in an electromagnetic sense, when the speed v is compared to the speed of light c. A possible exception is a high energy particle acceleratorin pulsedpowertechnology. Observing an uniformly moving system from a resting coordinate system x,y,z and assumingthe transformation is simplified (Schwab l01) to:
Applying the quantities within the appropriate coordinate system, the Maxwell equations remain valid. The field equations from groups 1 and 2 are Lorenz invariant. The same can be stated for the forces on charges caused by electric and magnetic fields. Forces depend on the frame of reference and can be of electric or magnetic origin. The Lorentz force is:
Tn contrast to the Lorentz invariance of the field equations, the materia! relation (vii), (3.14) changes for the moving system and the resting observer to:
and respectively for the resting system with the moving observer using
Interface conditions
Technical devices are constructed using piecewise homogenous materials. The boundary of such materials can be identified as a surface inhomogeneity. To consider this boundary, the associated interface conditions for the electric and magnetic field are discussed in the following section.
To derive those interface conditions, the integral form of the Maxwell equations is used.
Table 3.1. Maxwell equations for quasistationary fields.

differential form 
integral form 

(i) (ii) 
(3.26) (3.27) 

(iii) 
(3.28) 

(iv) 
(3.29) 
Here,is the magnetic flux, I the conducted current, Q the charge, C indicates the contour integral and S the surface integral.
Normal component Maxwell equation (iii), (3.28) in integral form is used to derive the interface conditions at the boundary of different materials for the normal component (Fig. 3.9). Using with n the unit vector in normal direction yields:
Fig. 3,9. Interface between material O and ©with different properties.
The surface S can be of arbitrary shape and the integral only vanishes if the integrand is zero. This yields the interface conditions for the electromagnetic field. The components of the magnetic flux density B are continuous at material boundaries even if they have different ferromagnetic properties.
With respect to the finite element method, this means that the normal component of the flux density must be constant at the boundary between finite elements (Fig. 3.10).
Fig. 3.10. Normal component of the flux density at the interface of two triangular finite elements.
Similar to the normal component of the magnetic flux density, the normal component of the displacement current density can be derived. Here, Maxwell equation (iv) in integral form eq.(3.29) is evaluated in the same way yielding:
Whereis the space charge density, V indicates the volume integral andthe surface charge density,
With the presence of a surface charge density, the normal component of the displacement current density is discontinuous at the interface of a material boundary. Without surface charge density, the normal component of the displacement current density is continuous at boundaries.
With the presence of a surface charge density, the normal component of the displacement current density is discontinuous at the interface of a material boundary. Without surface charge density, the normal component of the displacement current density is continuous at boundaries.
Fig. 3.11. Normal component of the displacement current density at the interface of two triangular finite elements.
To discuss the interface conditions for the conducting current density /, the Maxwell equation (ii), eq.(3.27) is considered. With (vi), (3.13), the same conditions found for the magnetic field can be applied for the current density as well:
Fig. 3.12. Normal component of the current density.
Tangential component The interface conditions valid for the tangential component of the electrical field E can be derived from the integral form of the first Maxwell equation (i), (3.26).
Fig. 3.13. Interface and path of integration between material O and © with different material properties.
Applying the path of integration on the contour drawn in Fig. 3.13 and counting positive as indicated, yields:
It is assumed thatwith t the unit vector in tangential direction. With a finite B and w>0 the surface integral over B vanishes and this yields:
Fig. 3.14. Continuous tangential component of the electric field strength.
The tangential component of the electric field strength is continuous at interfaces of a boundary with different material properties.
Analogous to the electric field strength and employing the integral form of Maxwell equation (ii) eq.(3.27) yields:
Hereis a possible surface current density.
Herewith, the interface conditions for the tangential component of the magnetic field strength H can be written by:
Fig. 3.15. Continuous tangential component of the magnetic field strength
With vanishing surface current density the tangential component of the magnetic field strength is continuous at interfaces.